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Kamis, 20 April 2017

DEVELOPING DIGITAL ENGLISH TEACHING MATERIALS FOR
CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDENTS

Dharmawati
STT Harapan Medan, Indonesia



ABSTRACT
This research deals with developing digital English teaching materials for students of civil engineering. The objectives of this research are to know how digital English materials English is designed for civil engineering students. This research conducted qualitative method using Research and Development methodology (R&D). The data collected were analyzed by applying  interactive model of Miles and Huberman. This is used data collecting Technique Triangulation. The location of this research was STT Harapan Medan. The result of teaching ESP was not suitable to develop the students’ competence in communicating English. Teaching ESP can be effective when the lecturer’s competence matches to teaching ESP. The data analysis showed that teaching structure and reading comprehension need both lecturer’s competence and students’ ability to make ESP teaching successful. It is suggested to the lecturer to always update, revise and suit  the digital English teaching materials to find out the best strategy and media to develop digital teaching ESP for civil engineering students.
Key Words: Developing, Digital English Teaching Materials, Civil Engineering


INTRODUCTION
English has been spoken by most countries in the world as an international language. Consequently, English has to be used in international communication both orall and in written communication, for general as well as specific needs. Therefore, people in countries where English is used as a second or foreign language have to learn it, if they want to be able to communicate internationally. Indonesia, where English is a foreign language, also has to teach the citizens especially the young generation to learn English.
People use English to communicate, to strengthen and to fasten relationship among all countries in the world in all fields, for example in tourism as the language of tourism, and also in politics, technology, law, nursing, trade, engineering etc. The field itself is called English for Specific Purposes (ESP).
ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner's reason for learning (Hutchinson 1987). Basturkmen (2008) sets out The Ideas and options in English for Specific Purpose used to examine ideas and options in this work. English  for engineering  is  typical  English  and  restricted  English  used  in  engineering  context  and workplace.  It  is  a  fact  that,  over  years,  English  for  engineering, especially civil engineering  as  a  branch  of  ESP  has been  viewed  by  many  English  scholars  and  teachers  as  having  significant  effects  on meeting  students’ career needs.
Basically the objectives of the study of civil engineering departement is to  prepare students to be qualified in civil engineering. Beside learning the major of study, English is given as a general subject to students. By mastering English, students are expected to be able to absorb knowledge of civil engineering is written in English. Lecturers of ESP should make use of three key strategies if they want to have a successful lecture: honesty, preparation and confidence (Day and Krzanowski, 2011). In following the development of technology, the lecturer must be able to design the interesting teaching material, like digital teaching materials. The world we live in today is populated by digital media products, and the shift from traditional media has taken place in many industries, including industries that aren’t typically associated with digital media—such as health, government and education.
Digital Material is an extensible modeling and software infrastructure to support the representation and simulation of material structure and evolution across multiple length and time scales Digital teaching material is more than just providing students with a laptop. Digital teaching material requires a combination of technology, digital content and instruction.
In response to problems, the writer thinks that it is really important to help the students of civil engineering at to adapt today's competitive society in order they are able to face their job field after they graduate. In this research, the writer will concern with developing digital English teaching materials for civil engineering students in the first semester.



METHOD
This descriptive qualitative research is applied. This research will be conducted based on developmental research procedures. Today, even amid the calls for increased use of alternative research methodologies, the notion of developmental research is often unclear, not only to the broader community of educational researchers, but to many instructional technology researchers as well. An understanding of this topic is rooted in the nature of development and research in general, as well as a more specific understanding of the purpose, focus, and techniques of developmental research itself. 
This research used Research and Development methodology (R&D). Sugiyono (2013) states that research and development (R &D) is  a  research  method  used  to  produce  a  product  and examine the effectiveness of the product. It is aimed to help teachers and students to get the best educational product.
The data was collected through recorded for students of informatics and English lecturer in teaching learning process in the classroom. There was three steps in data collection: Record the lecturer’s and students’  interview, transcribe the data, confirm the data revealed.
In collecting the data, there will be three instruments used, they are questionnaire, interview and  documents. And the writer used to get validity in collecting data. Triangulation is defined as technique of collecting data by combination of some different data sources’’ (Moleong, 2010). The aim of triangulation is to increase one understands of what ever being investigated. In this research, the researcher use a triangulation. This is Data Collecting Technique Triangulation.

Figure 1 Triangulation Technique


FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
Material development is very important part in teaching English for ESP students. It refers to all the processes made of by practitioners who produce and/or use materials for language learning, including materials evaluation, design, production, exploitation and research. Ideally, all of these processes should be given consideration and should interact in the making of language-learning.
The language skill needed of civil engineering students is reading and speaking skills. Based on the result of data analysis, the students needed reading skill in order to comprehend the text and understand the construction items from the reading text. The writer found out that the students were very week in comprehending the text. They were difficult to make the conclusion of the text. The students also needed to improve their knowledge about the construction items.
In defining draft of reading material for civil engineering Students, the arrangement of the draft of reading materials for civil engineering students are based on the research. The data used to arrange the reading material. The four components of materials arrangement for students of civil engineering can be shown  in figure 2 below.

 














Figure 2 Draft of Developing Digital Reading Material for Civil Engineering Students

Based on the observation, it was found that the students of civil engineering needed to study English by using media, it can be seen as table 1 below
Table 1 The Need of Using Media
Secara Individu (Individually)
4
9%
Menggunakan media (Using media)
24
50%
Team/Berkelompok (Team/group)
12
25%
Bermain (game)
8
17%
Total
48
100%

From the table above, we can conclude that there were 50% or 24 students like studying English by using media, whether using, infocus, laptop or handphone. Based on the observation, it was found that the students needed to study reading. Reading text should consist of information about civil engineering  items. The new terminology purposed to make the students easier to comprehend the sentences. Furthermore, the course materials should be chosen from actual differnt sources such as text books, journals, article, magazines, and other materials used in content courses. The students argued that actual materials consist of the recent materials about civil engineering. It can be seen from the number of respondents (65%) in questionnaire item  as shown in table 2 below.
Table 2 The Need of Actual Material Related to Civil Engineering Study

Hot issues related to all civil engineering subjects
31
65%
Civil engineering materials
5
10%
Construction Building
12
25%
Total
48
100%

In arranging reading materials, first activity  is to ask the student to read the text, after reading each text, the students are listening the explaination of the text. The purpose of this activity is to check students’ reading and listening comprehension. This reading materials were designing by choosing suitable materials for civil engineering students and recording the lecturer’s voice when she explained the text. This materials were designed by using the SOM (Screencast-O-Matic) application. When the students want to start reading materials, they have to start ‘play button’ to see the text, and automatically the application will count 3,2,1, and go as shown in figure 3 below.

Figur 3 Starting Reading Material

After the reading text is opened, the students are able to read the text and listen the voice from the lecturer who is explaining the topic in 15 minutes, as shown in figure 4 below.
            
Figure 4 Reading Material
Beside the reading skill, the students wondered to learn  speaking ability. The students’ beliefe that speaking ability is needed in their future. They said that they have to communicate  with their clients effectively their job field. Beside that, the students need to get more focus on sentence structure. Because structure is the most important element of language to learn.
In designing the structure for example Simple Present Tense, it used photo story 3 application. Firstly we write the topic in PowerPoin, so that all the students can read and understanding the topic, as seen in figure 5 below.
Figure 5 Simple Present Tense Explaination

After having explaination about the tenses simple present tense, we continue to develop the topic by making some exercises to develop the student’s speaking skill. This exercises can be made by importing some photos. The importing photos were wrote simple sentence. And then the students will practice the use of tenses by telling the story about the pictures by their own words as shown in figure 6 below.
       
Figure 6 Photo Story

In describing the photos, the students practice their understanding, writing and speaking skill. They are free to give the topic. The lecturer can ask one student to tell the story in front of the class, and the rest students will pay attention about the story. After practicing the lecturer can ask the conclusian about the photos.


CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
This reserach is aim to know how digital English materials English is designed for civil engineering students. The digital English materials were done for 12 meetings in first semester.the materials were developed by using SOM (Screencast-O-Matic) and Photo Story 3 application. This materials can be accessed in laptop, and android. The componen used in developing teaching material are: topic, theme, orientation, and evaluation. English reading materials should be attractive. Attractive here means color picture, chart and photograph, in rder to attract the students’ interest . For future research, this digital English material can be developed by using interisting animation. For materials, they should be designed more interactive so that the students will not be boret in studying English. And it is suggested to ESP lecturer to always update, revise and suit the teaching materials to movement of world and find out the best media to develop teaching ESP for civil engineering students.

ACKNOWLEDMENT
I thank to all the students and English lecturer who participated in this research. I also express my gratitude to computer lecturer for giving me suggestions and supporting this research.

REFERENCES
Ampa, A. Basri, M. Adriani, A. 2013. The Development of Contextual Learning Materials for the English Speaking Skills. International Journal of Education and Research. Vol. 1 No. 9 September 2013.
Andina E. 2011. Buku digital dan pengaturannya. Aspirasi 2(1):119-146.
Basturkmen, H. 2006.  The Ideas and options in English for Specific Purpose.         London : The University of Auckland.
Birsen, B & Meltem, M. 2012. A study on the writing needs of engineering students. Contemporary Online Language Education Journal, 2012, 2(1), 11-21.
Chia-hsiu, Tsao. 2011. English for Specific Purposes in the EFL Context: A Survey of Student and Faculty Perceptions. Asian ESP Journal Spring 2011 Volume 7 Issue 2.
David F. 2009. Tenses: grammar and Exercise. Luzen: Switzerland
Hutchinson, T & Waters, A. 1987. English for Specific Purpose. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
Day, J. & Krzanowski, M. 2011. Teaching English for Specific Purposes. An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Moleong, Lexy J. 2010. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja RosdaKarya
Munadi  Y.  2008. Media  Pembelajaran  Sebuah  Pendekatan  Baru. Jakarta: Gaung Persada.
Santiago Remache Esteras. 2007. Infotech: English for computer users.  Cambridge
Sugiyono. 2013. Metode  Penelitian  Kuantitatif  Kualitatif  dan  R&D.  Bandung: Alfabeta.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dharmawati is an English lecturer of STT Harapan Medan, North Sumatera. She teaches English for Specific Purposes. In 2013, she gained her master degree in English Applied Linguistics Study Program Postgraduate School State University of Medan

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DEVELOPING DIGITAL ENGLISH TEACHING MATERIALS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDENTS Dharmawati dharmawati66@yahoo.com STT Harapan Medan,...